Patrice Genevet and Federico Capasso. 2015. “Holographic optical metasurfaces: a review of current progress.” REPORTS ON PROGRESS IN PHYSICS, 78, 2.Abstract
In this article, we review recent developments in the field of surface electromagnetic wave holography. The holography principle is used as a tool to solve an inverse engineering problem consisting of designing novel plasmonic interfaces to excite either surface waves or free-space beams with any desirable field distributions. Leveraging on the new nanotechnologies to carve subwavelength features within the large diffracting apertures of conventional holograms, it is now possible to create binary holographic interfaces to shape both amplitude phase and polarization of light. The ability of the new generation of ultrathin and compact holographic optical devices to fully address light properties could find widespread applications in photonics.
Tobias S. Mansuripur, Guy-Mael de Naurois, Alexey Belyanin, and Federico Capasso. 2015. “Lasers with distributed loss have a sublinear output power characteristic.” OPTICA, 2, 1, Pp. 48-55. Publisher's VersionAbstract
It is a generally accepted fact of laser physics that in a homogeneously broadened gain medium, above threshold the output power of the laser grows linearly with the pump power. The derivation requires only a few simple lines in laser textbooks, and the linear growth is a direct result of the fact that above threshold, the intracavity optical intensity will increase to the point that the gain is saturated to the level of the net loss-so-called gain pinning or clamping. Such a derivation, however, assumes that the mirror loss is distributed (the approximation of uniform gain saturation) which is only a good assumption for cavities whose end mirrors have reflectivities close to one. Furthermore, in gain media with a distributed loss there is a maximum achievable intracavity intensity that in turn limits the output power. We show that the approximation of uniform gain saturation leads to output powers that violate this limit. More generally, for lasers with low mirror reflectivities that also have distributed loss, we prove that the output power grows sub-linearly with the pump power close to threshold. Furthermore, after threshold the output grows linearly, but with a slope efficiency that can be substantially smaller than predicted by the uniform gain saturation theory, with the largest deviation occurring for traveling-wave lasers and asymmetric Fabry-Perot lasers. These results are particularly applicable to semiconductor lasers, and specific applications to quantum cascade lasers are discussed. (C) 2015 Optical Society of America
Amaury Hayat, J. P. BALTHASAR MUELLER, and Federico Capasso. 2015. “Lateral chirality-sorting optical forces.” PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 112, 43, Pp. 13190-13194. Publisher's VersionAbstract
The transverse component of the spin angular momentum of evanescent waves gives rise to lateral optical forces on chiral particles, which have the unusual property of acting in a direction in which there is neither a field gradient nor wave propagation. Because their direction and strength depends on the chiral polarizability of the particle, they act as chirality-sorting and may offer a mechanism for passive chirality spectroscopy. The absolute strength of the forces also substantially exceeds that of other recently predicted sideways optical forces.
Mark F. Witinski, Romain Blanchard, Christian Pfluegl, Laurent Diehl, Biao Li, Benjamin Pancy, Daryoosh Vakhshoori, and Federico Capasso. 2015. “Monolithic DFB QCL array aims at handheld IR spectral analysis.” LASER FOCUS WORLD, 51, 11, Pp. 36-39. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Many QCLs combined on a single chip demonstrate fully electronic wavelength tuning for stand-off IR spectroscopy of explosives and other materials.
Francesco Aieta, Mikhail A. Kats, Patrice Genevet, and Federico Capasso. 2015. “Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation.” SCIENCE, 347, 6228, Pp. 1342-1345. Publisher's VersionAbstract
The replacement of bulk refractive optical elements with diffractive planar components enables the miniaturization of optical systems. However, diffractive optics suffers from large chromatic aberrations due to the dispersion of the phase accumulated by light during propagation. We show that this limitation can be overcome with an engineered wavelength-dependent phase shift imparted by a metasurface, and we demonstrate a design that deflects three wavelengths by the same angle. A planar lens without chromatic aberrations at three wavelengths is also presented. Our designs are based on low-loss dielectric resonators, which introduce a dense spectrum of optical modes to enable dispersive phase compensation. The suppression of chromatic aberrations in metasurface-based planar photonics will find applications in lightweight collimators for displays, as well as chromatically corrected imaging systems.
Patrick Rauter and Federico Capasso. 2015. “Multi-wavelength quantum cascade laser arrays.” LASER & PHOTONICS REVIEWS, 9, 5, Pp. 452-477.Abstract
The progress on multi-wavelength quantum cascade laser arrays in the mid-infrared is reviewed, which are a powerful, robust and versatile source for next-generation spectroscopy and stand-off detection systems. Various approaches for the array elements are discussed, from conventional distributed-feedback lasers over master-oscillator power-amplifier devices to tapered oscillators, and the performances of the different array types are compared. The challenges associated with reliably achieving single-mode operation at deterministic wavelengths for each laser element in combination with a uniform distribution of high output power across the array are discussed. An overview of the range of applications benefiting from the quantum cascade laser approach is given. The distinct and crucial advantages of arrays over external cavity quantum cascade lasers as tunable single-mode sources in the mid-infrared are discussed. Spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging demonstrations by quantum cascade laser arrays are reviewed.
Bernhard J. Bohn, Martin Schnell, Mikhail A. Kats, Francesco Aieta, Rainer Hillenbrand, and Federico Capasso. 2015. “Near-Field Imaging of Phased Array Metasurfaces.” NANO LETTERS, 15, 6, Pp. 3851-3858. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Phased-antenna metasurfaces can impart abrupt, spatially dependent changes to the amplitude, phase, and polarization of light and thus mold wavefronts in a desired fashion. Here we present an experimental and computational near-field study of metasurfaces based on near-resonant V-shaped antennas and connect their near- and far-field optical responses. We show that far fields can be obtained from limited, experimentally obtained knowledge of the near fields, paving the way for experimental near-field characterization of metasurfaces and other optical nanostructures and prediction of their far fields from the near-field measurements.
Mikhail A. Belkin and Federico Capasso. 2015. “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers: high performance room temperature terahertz sources.” PHYSICA SCRIPTA, 90, 11. Publisher's VersionAbstract
In the last decade quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) have become the most widely used source of mid-infrared radiation, finding large scale applications because of their wide tunability and overall high performance. However far-infrared (terahertz) QCLs have lagged behind in terms of performance and impact due to the inability so far of achieving room temperature operation. Here we review recent research that has led to a new class of QCL light sources that has overcome these limitations leading to room temperature operation in the terahertz spectral range, with nearly 2 mW of optical power and significant tunability, opening up also this region of the spectrum to a wide range of applications.
Nanfang Yu and Federico Capasso. 2015. “Optical Metasurfaces and Prospect of Their Applications Including Fiber Optics.” JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY, 33, 12, SI, Pp. 2344-2358. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Metasurfaces have emerged in the recent years as a platform to design subwavelength-thick optical components (''flat optics''), which can be used to implement any optical function (beam deflection, focusing, waveplates, etc). These flat optical components can be fabricated using a single lithographic step. The approach is particularly suited for patterning nonconventional substrates, such as semiconductor laser facets and optical fiber facets. In this paper, we review recent applications of metasurfaces to flat optical devices, including their use in semiconductor lasers and fiber optics. Metasurfaces make it possible to design all properties of light (amplitude, phase, and polarization), which enable us to build a large variety of flat optical components, including planar lenses, quarter-wave plates, optical vortex plates, holograms for vector beam generation, and ultrathin perfect absorbers and color coatings. We also review flat collimating lenses integrated on the facets of mid-infrared and far-infrared (terahertz) quantum cascade lasers, and novel techniques to create large arrays of nanostructures on fiber facets.
Lulu Liu, Alexander Woolf, Alejandro W. Rodriguez, and Federico Capasso. 12/13/2014. “Absolute position total internal reflection microscopy with an optical tweezer.” PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 111, 52, Pp. E5609-E5615. Publisher's VersionAbstract
A noninvasive, in situ calibration method for total internal reflection microscopy (TIRM) based on optical tweezing is presented, which greatly expands the capabilities of this technique. We show that by making only simple modifications to the basic TIRM sensing setup and procedure, a probe particle's absolute position relative to a dielectric interface may be known with better than 10 nm precision out to a distance greater than 1 mu m from the surface. This represents an approximate 10x improvement in error and 3x improvement in measurement range over conventional TIRM methods. The technique's advantage is in the direct measurement of the probe particle's scattering intensity vs. height profile in situ, rather than relying on assumptions, inexact system analogs, or detailed knowledge of system parameters for calibration. To demonstrate the improved versatility of the TIRM method in terms of tunability, precision, and range, we show our results for the hindered near-wall diffusion coefficient for a spherical dielectric particle.
Henning Galinski, Antonio Ambrosio, Pasqualino Maddalena, Iwan Schenker, Ralph Spolenak, and Federico Capasso. 12/2/2014. “Instability-induced pattern formation of photoactivated functional polymers.” PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 111, 48, Pp. 17017-17022. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Since the pioneering work of Turing on the formation principles of animal coat patterns [Turing AM (1952) Phil Trans R Soc Lond B 237(641): 37-72], such as the stripes of a tiger, great effort has been made to understand and explain various phenomena of self-assembly and pattern formation. Prominent examples are the spontaneous demixing in emulsions, such as mixtures of water and oil [Herzig EM, et al. (2007) Nat Mater 6: 966-971]; the distribution of matter in the universe [Kibble TWB (1976) J Phys A: MathGen 9(8): 1387]; surface reconstruction in ionic crystals [Clark KW, et al. (2012) Nanotechnol 23(18): 185306]; and the pattern formation caused by phase transitions in metal alloys, polymer mixtures and binary Bose-Einstein condensates [Sabbatini J, et al. (2011) Phys Rev Lett 107: 230402]. Photoactivated pattern formation in functional polymers has attracted major interest due to its potential applications in molecular electronics and photoresponsive systems. Here we demonstrate that photoactivated pattern formation on azobenzene-containing polymer films can be entirely explained by the physical concept of phase separation. Using experiments and simulations, we show that phase separation is caused by an instability created by the photoactivated transitions between two immiscible states of the polymer. In addition, we have shown in accordance with theory, that polarized light has a striking effect on pattern formation indicated by enhanced phase separation.
Shuyan Zhang, Mikhail A. Kats, Yanjie Cui, You Zhou, Yu Yao, Shriram Ramanathan, and Federico Capasso. 11/25/2014. “Current-modulated optical properties of vanadium dioxide thin films in the phase transition region.” APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 105, 21, Pp. 211104. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Vanadium dioxide (VO2) is a correlated electron material which undergoes an insulator-metal transition proximal to room temperature. The large change of optical properties across this phase transition is promising for tunable optical and optoelectronic devices especially at infrared frequencies. We demonstrate the ability to locally tune the optical properties on the micron scale through a simple design consisting of two electrodes patterned on a VO2 thin film. By current injection between the electrodes, a localized conducting path (metallic phase) can be formed within the insulating background. The width of the conducting path can be controlled by varying the applied current. Fourier transform infrared imaging shows that this current-modulated reflectance changes significantly over a distance on the order of the wavelength in the mid-infrared spectral range. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.
Patrick Rauter, Jiao Lin, Patrice Genevet, Suraj P. Khanna, Mohammad Lachab, A. Giles Davies, Edmund H. Linfield, and Federico Capasso. 11/18/2014. “Electrically pumped semiconductor laser with monolithic control of circular polarization.” PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 111, 52, Pp. E5623-E5632. Publisher's VersionAbstract
We demonstrate surface emission of terahertz (THz) frequency radiation from a monolithic quantum cascade laser with built-in control over the degree of circular polarization by `` fishbone'' gratings composed of orthogonally oriented aperture antennas. Different grating concepts for circularly polarized emission are introduced along with the presentation of simulations and experimental results. Fifth-order gratings achieve a degree of circular polarization of up to 86% within a 12 degrees-wide core region of their emission lobes in the far field. For devices based on an alternative transverse grating design, degrees of circular polarization as high as 98% are demonstrated for selected far-field regions of the outcoupled THz radiation and within a collection half-angle of about 6 degrees. Potential and limitations of integrated antenna gratings for polarization-controlled emission are discussed.
Yu Yao, Raji Shankar, Mikhail A. Kats, Yi Song, Jing Kong, Marko Loncar, and Federico Capasso. 10/13/2014. “Electrically Tunable Metasurface Perfect Absorbers for Ultrathin Mid-Infrared Optical Modulators.” NANO LETTERS, 14, 11, Pp. 6526-6532. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Dynamically reconfigurable metasurfaces open up unprecedented opportunities in applications such as high capacity communications, dynamic beam shaping, hyperspectral imaging, and adaptive optics. The realization of high performance metasurface-based devices remains a great challenge due to very limited tuning ranges and modulation depths. Here we show that a widely tunable metasurface composed of optical antennas on graphene can be incorporated into a subwavelength-thick optical cavity to create an electrically tunable perfect absorber. By switching the absorber in and out of the critical coupling condition via the gate voltage applied on graphene, a modulation depth of up to 100% can be achieved. In particular, we demonstrated ultrathin (thickness < lambda(0)/10) high speed (up to 20 GHz) optical modulators over a broad wavelength range (5-7 mu m). The operating wavelength can be scaled from the near-infrared to the terahertz by simply tailoring the metasurface and cavity dimensions.
Mikhail A. Kats and Federico Capasso. 9/30/2014. “Ultra-thin optical interference coatings on rough and flexible substrates.” APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 105, 13, Pp. 131108. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Recently demonstrated ultra-thin optical coatings comprising nanometer-thick highly absorbing films on top of reflecting substrates can display strong optical interference effects, resulting in structural colors and absorption enhancement. Here, we demonstrate that these optical interference effects persist when the films are deposited on substrates that have a large degree of roughness and inhomogeneity on micro- and nano-scales. In particular, we deposited films of gold and amorphous germanium onto paper which serves as a rough and flexible substrate and observe matte interference colors that vary as a function of the germanium thickness. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.
J. P. BALTHASAR MUELLER, KRISTJAN LEOSSON, and Federico Capasso. 8/25/2014. “Polarization-Selective Coupling to Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polariton Waveguides.” NANO LETTERS, 14, 10, Pp. 5524-5527. Publisher's VersionAbstract
We demonstrate polarization-selective coupling from an optical fiber to long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguide modes using plasmonic antenna arrays. The arrays allow the sorting of two distinct (not necessarily orthogonal) polarizations to counter-propagating waveguide modes. The polarization-selective behavior of the devices is described by a compact formalism based on Stokes vectors that offers a clear graphical representation of the response. We experimentally observe polarization-controlled switching and unidirectional coupling with extinction ratios greater than 30 dB and coupling efficiencies comparable to those of a conventional grating coupler.
Wondwosen Metaferia, Bouzid Simozrag, Carl Junesand, Yan-Ting Sun, Mathieu Carras, Romain Blanchard, Federico Capasso, and Sebastian Lourdudoss. 8/14/2014. “Demonstration of a quick process to achieve buried heterostructure quantum cascade laser leading to high power and wall plug efficiency.” OPTICAL ENGINEERING, 53, 8, Pp. 087104. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Together with the optimal basic design, buried heterostructure quantum cascade laser (BH-QCL) with semi-insulating regrowth offers a unique possibility to achieve an effective thermal dissipation and lateral single mode. We demonstrate here the realization of BH-QCLs with a single-step regrowth of highly resistive (>1 x 10(8) ohm . cm) semi-insulating InP:Fe in <45 min for the first time in a flexible hydride vapor phase epitaxy process for burying ridges etched down to 10 to 15 mu m depth, both with and without mask overhang. The fabricated BH-QCLs emitting at similar to 4.7 and similar to 5.5 mu m were characterized. 2-mm-long 5.5-mu m lasers with a ridge width of 17 to 22 mu m, regrown with mask overhang, exhibited no leakage current. Large width and high doping in the structure did not permit high current density for continuous wave (CW) operation. 5-mm-long 4.7-mu m BH-QCLs of ridge widths varying from 6 to 14 mu m regrown without mask overhang, besides being spatially monomode, TM00, exhibited wall plug efficiency (WPE) of similar to 8 to 9% with an output power of 1.5 to 2.5 W at room temperature and under CW operation. Thus, we demonstrate a quick, flexible, and single-step regrowth process with good planarization for realizing buried QCLs leading to monomode, high power, and high WPE. (C) The Authors. Published by SPIE under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Distribution or reproduction of this work in whole or in part requires full attribution of the original publication, including its DOI.
Yu Yao, Raji Shankar, Patrick Rauter, Yi Song, Jing Kong, Marko Loncar, and Federico Capasso. 6/18/2014. “High-Responsivity Mid-Infrared Graphene Detectors with Antenna-Enhanced Photocarrier Generation and Collection.” NANO LETTERS, 14, 7, Pp. 3749-3754. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Graphene is an attractive photoconductive material for optical detection due to its broad absorption spectrum and ultrashort response time. However, it remains a great challenge to achieve high responsivity in graphene detectors because of graphene's weak optical absorption (only 2.3% in the monolayer graphene sheet) and short photocarrier lifetime (<1 ps). Here we show that metallic antenna structures can be designed to simultaneously improve both light absorption and photocarrier collection in graphene detectors. The coupled antennas concentrate free space light into the nanoscale deep-subwavelength antenna gaps, where the graphene light interaction is greatly enhanced as a result of the ultrahigh electric field intensity inside the gap. Meanwhile, the metallic antennas are designed to serve as electrodes that collect the generated photocarriers very efficiently. We also elucidate the mechanism of photoconductive gain in the graphene detectors and demonstrate mid-infrared (mid-IR) antenna-assisted graphene detectors at room temperature with more than 200 times enhancement of responsivity (similar to 0.4 V/W at lambda(0) = 4.45 mu m) compared to devices without antennas (<2 mV/W).
Anish Goyal, Travis Myers, Christine A. Wang, Michael Kelly, Brian Tyrrell, B. Gokden, Antonio Sanchez, George Turner, and Federico Capasso. 6/4/2014. “Active hyperspectral imaging using a quantum cascade laser (QCL) array and digital-pixel focal plane array (DFPA) camera.” OPTICS EXPRESS, 22, 12, Pp. 14392-14401. Publisher's VersionAbstract
We demonstrate active hyperspectral imaging using a quantum-cascade laser (QCL) array as the illumination source and a digital-pixel focal-plane-array (DFPA) camera as the receiver. The multi-wavelength QCL array used in this work comprises 15 individually addressable QCLs in which the beams from all lasers are spatially overlapped using wavelength beam combining (WBC). The DFPA camera was configured to integrate the laser light reflected from the sample and to perform on-chip subtraction of the passive thermal background. A 27-frame hyperspectral image was acquired of a liquid contaminant on a diffuse gold surface at a range of 5 meters. The measured spectral reflectance closely matches the calculated reflectance. Furthermore, the high-speed capabilities of the system were demonstrated by capturing differential reflectance images of sand and KClO3 particles that were moving at speeds of up to 10 m/s. (C) 2014 Optical Society of America
Patrice Genevet and Federico Capasso. 2/25/2014. “Breakthroughs in Photonics 2013: Flat Optics: Wavefronts Control With Huygens' Interfaces.” IEEE PHOTONICS JOURNAL, 6, 2, Pp. 0700404. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Recent progress in the fields of nanophotonics and metamaterials has enabled the development of ultrathin and flat optical components, providing physicists and optical engineers a new method to control light. According to the Huygens-Fresnel principle, light gradually propagates step by step by exciting secondary waves that then reradiate to form the next wavefront; the phase and amplitude of these secondary waves are intimately related to the incoming optical wavefront. By using the response of nanoengineered subwavelength optical resonators at interfaces, it is now possible to engineer Huygens' interfaces to achieve an unprecedented control of the wavefront over large bandwidths and subwavelength propagation distances.