We introduce the Holographic - Single Scatterer Localization Microscopy in which we combine dynamical laser speckle illumination with centroid localization of backscattered light spots in order to localize isolated scattering particles. The reconstructed centroid images show very accurate particle localization, with precision much better than the width of diffraction-limited image of the particles recorded by the CCD. Furthermore, the method provides an improved resolution in distinguishing two very close scattering objects compared to the standard laser scanning techniques and can be assimilated to a confocal technique in the ability of light background rejection in three-dimensional disposition of scattering objects. The illumination is controlled via a digital holography setup based on the use of a spatial light modulator. This allows not only a high level of versatility in the illumination patterns, but also the remarkable characteristics of absence of moving mechanical parts, typical of the laser scanning techniques, and the possibility of strongly miniaturizing the setup. (C) 2017 Optical Society of America
Near-field optical microscopy (NSOM) is a scanning probe technique that allows optical imaging of sample surfaces with nanoscale resolution. Generally, all NSOM schemes rely on illuminating the sample surface and collecting the localized scattered light resulting from the interaction of the microscopes nanoscale probe with the sample surface in the illuminated region. Currently, a new set of nanospectroscopic techniques are being developed using Atomic Force Microscopes to detect optical interactions without detecting any light. One of these approaches is photoinduced force microscopy (PiFM), where local optical forces, originated by the illumination of the tip sample region, are mechanically detected as forced oscillations of the cantilever of an atomic microscope operating in a multifrequency mode. In this article we show high resolution nanoimaging via PiFM with a contrast only related to the local refractive index of a sample specifically designed to unambiguously decouple morphology from optical response at the nanoscale. Imaging lateral resolution better than 10 nm is obtained, and the optimization of the contrast mechanism is described. Our results represent a step forward in understanding the potential of the PiFM technique, showing the possibility of high resolution imaging of the local polarizability of the sample and subsequently using the mechanism to explore complex spectral behavior at the nanoscale.
In article number 1600580, Andrea Fratalocchi, Federico Capasso, and co-workers introduce a novel class of “network” metamaterials, whose functionality is controlled by the connectivity among heterogeneous subwavelength components within a complex network. Using theory and experiments in dealloyed metallic nanowire networks, it is shown how the network connectivity supports the formation of a tunable absorbing state, which is deterministically controllable and originates in regions that are only a few nanometers thick.
We report the optical constants of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The dynamic changes in optical properties and thickness of a drop-cast graphene oxide layer during reduction by long-term exposure to focused broad-band white light are monitored in situ. The anisotropic optical constants of the graphene oxide layer and the isotropically averaged optical constants of the reduced layer are precisely determined from a multiple-location analysis of spatially resolved data across the exposed location and a multiple-time-step analysis of the dynamic data, respectively. Observed inter-band transitions in the graphene oxide layer are discussed in relation to theoretical predictions for different coverage levels of the graphene oxide sheets with oxygen containing functional groups. The derived optical constants of the reduced graphene oxide layer are compared to reported values of graphene and thermally reduced graphene oxide. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
In-line polarimeters perform nonterminating measurements of the polarization state of light by sampling only a small part of the total light intensity. In-line polarimeters are used in applications such as polarization state generators and in optical communications. Current polarimeters use multiple optical components in sequence for polarization analysis and therefore often become bulky and expensive. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the operation of compact fiber-coupled polarimeters with high sampling rates, operating at telecom wavelengths, each polarimeter comprising a single ultra-thin metasurface aligned to four photodetectors. We compare two configurations of such metasurface polarimeters, with in-plane and out-of-plane detection, respectively. The metasurface polarimeters reported here show excellent agreement with commercial polarimeters and cover a bandwidth of at least 100 nm. (C) 2017 Optical Society of America
This article reviews recent progress leading to the realization of planar optical components made of a single layer of phase shifting nanostructures. After introducing the principles of planar optics and discussing earlier works on sub-wavelength diffractive optics, we introduce a classification of metasurfaces based on their different phase mechanisms and profiles and a comparison between plasmonic and dielectric metasurfaces. We place particular emphasis on the recent developments on electric and magnetic field control of light with dielectric nanostructures and highlight the physical mechanisms and designs required for efficient all-dielectric metasurfaces. Practical devices of general interest such as metalenses, beam deflectors, holograms, and polarizing interfaces are discussed, including high-performance metalenses at visible wavelengths. Successful strategies to achieve achromatic response at selected wavelengths and near unity transmission/reflection efficiency are discussed. Dielectric metasurfaces and dispersion management at interfaces open up technology opportunities for applications including wavefront control, lightweight imaging systems, displays, electronic consumer products, and conformable and wearable optics. (c) 2017 Optical Society of America.
Structural colors have drawn wide attention for their potential as a future printing technology for various applications, ranging from biomimetic tissues to adaptive camouflage materials. However, an efficient approach to realize robust colors with a scalable fabrication technique is still lacking, hampering the realization of practical applications with this platform. Here, we develop a new approach based on large-scale network metamaterials that combine dealloyed subwavelength structures at the nanoscale with lossless, ultra-thin dielectric coatings. By using theory and experiments, we show how subwavelength dielectric coatings control a mechanism of resonant light coupling with epsilon-near-zero regions generated in the metallic network, generating the formation of saturated structural colors that cover a wide portion of the spectrum. Ellipsometry measurements support the efficient observation of these colors, even at angles of 70 degrees. The network-like architecture of these nanomaterials allows for high mechanical resistance, which is quantified in a series of nano-scratch tests. With such remarkable properties, these metastructures represent a robust design technology for real-world, large-scale commercial applications.
Optical frequency combs(1,2) establish a rigid phase-coherent link between microwave and optical domains and are emerging as high-precision tools in an increasing number of applications(3). Frequency combs with large intermodal spacing are employed in the field of microwave photonics for radiofrequency arbitrary waveform synthesis(4,5) and for the generation of terahertz tones of high spectral purity in future wireless communication networks(6,7). Here, we demonstrate self–starting harmonic frequency comb generation with a terahertz repetition rate in a quantum cascade laser. The large intermodal spacing caused by the suppression of tens of adjacent cavity modes originates from a parametric contribution to the gain due to temporal modulations of population inversion in the laser(8,9). Using multiheterodyne self-detection, the mode spacing of the harmonic comb is shown to be-uniform to within 5 x 10(-12) parts of the central frequency. This new -harmonic comb state extends the range of applications of quantum cascade laser frequency combs(10-13).
The measured emission wavelengths of AlInAs/GaInAs/InP quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) have been reported to be similar to 0.5-1 mu m longer than the designed QCL wavelength. This work clarifies the origin of the red-shifted wavelength. It was found that AlInAs/GaInAs heterointerfaces are compositionally graded over similar to 2.5-4.5 nm, and indium accumulates at the AlInAs-toGainAs interface. Thus, the as-grown QCLs are far from the ideal abrupt interfaces used in QCL modeling. When graded layers are incorporated in QCL band structure and wavefunction calculations, the emission wavelengths are red shifted. Furthermore, we demonstrate that QCLs with graded interfaces can be designed without compromising performance and show greatly improved correlation between designed and measured emission wavelength. QCLs were designed for emission between 7.5 and 8.5 mu m. These structures were grown and wet-etched ridge devices were fabricated. The QCLs exhibit room temperature peak powers exceeding 900 mW and pulsed efficiencies of similar to 8 to 10%.
We would like to clarify our paper [Opt. Express 25, 377 (2017)] abstract sentence ``These beams carry orbital angular momentum proportional to the number of intertwined helices constituting the wavefront.'' (C) 2017 Optical Society of America
Vortex beams are characterized by a helical wavefront and a phase singularity point on the propagation axis that results in a doughnut-like intensity profile. These beams carry orbital angular momentum proportional to the number of intertwined helices constituting the wavefront. Vortex beams have many applications in optics, such as optical trapping, quantum optics and microscopy. Although beams with such characteristics can be generated holographically, spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion has attracted considerable interest as a tool to create vortex beams. In this process, the geometrical phase is exploited to create helical beams whose handedness is determined by the circular polarization (left/right) of the incident light, that is by its spin. Here we demonstrate high-efficiency Spin-to- Orbital angular momentum-Converters (SOCs) at visible wavelengths based on dielectric metasurfaces. With these SOCs we generate vortex beams with high and fractional topological charge and show for the first time the simultaneous generation of collinear helical beams with different and arbitrary orbital angular momentum. This versatile method of creating vortex beams, which circumvents the limitations of liquid crystal SOCs and adds new functionalities, should significantly expand the applications of these beams. (C) 2017 Optical Society of America
Conventional compact spectrometers have a fixed spectral resolution and cannot resolve the polarization properties of light without additional optical elements, while their larger counterparts are bulky and costly. Here, we demonstrate multiple offaxis meta-lenses in the visible integrated on a single planar substrate. They possess both focusing and strongly dispersive properties and are designed to provide different spectral resolutions as well as working wavelength ranges on the same chip. We realize a compact spectrometer using only these meta-lenses and a CMOS camera and achieve detector-limited spectral resolutions as small as 0.3 nm and a total working wavelength range exceeding 170 nm for a beam propagation length of only a few cm. In addition, this spectrometer has the capability to resolve different helicities of light in a single measurement. This chip-camera setup represents the most compact configuration so far achieved for a spectrometer with similar performance and functionality, and its compatibility with large-scale fabrication processes makes it broadly applicable. (C) 2017 Author(s).
We present recent advances in metasurface-based photonics, which enables the realization of high performance planar lenses (metalenses) in the visible spectrum. They are enabled by a technique based on atomic layer deposition of titanium dioxide allowing for the fabrication of nanostructures with high fidelity. First, we demonstrate highly efficient metalenses with numerical aperture NA = 0.8 using the Pancharatnam-Berry phase approach. These metalenses can focus light into a diffraction-limited spot. They have efficiencies as high as 86% and provide high imaging resolution. Furthermore, by judicious design of the phase-shifting elements, we achieve a multispectral chiral metalens realized with a single metasurface layer. This chiral metalens can resolve both the chiral and spectral information of an object without the requirement of any additional optical components. Finally, we discuss the experimental realization of polarization-insensitive metalenses with NAs as high as 0.85. They are able to focus incident light to a spot as small as similar to 0.64 lambda with efficiencies up to 60%. Due to its straightforward and CMOS-compatible fabrication, this platform is promising for a wide range of applications ranging from camera modules, displays, laser-based imaging, microscopy, and spectroscopy to laser fabrication and lithography.
Bifunctional active regions, capable of light generation and detection at the same wavelength, allow a straightforward realization of the integrated mid-infrared photonics for sensing applications. Here, we present a high performance bifunctional device for 8 pm capable of 1 W single facet continuous wave emission at 15 degrees C. Apart from the general performance benefits, this enables sensing techniques which rely on continuous wave operation, for example, heterodyne detection, to be realized within a monolithic platform and demonstrates that bifunctional operation can be realized at longer wavelength, where wavelength matching becomes increasingly difficult and that the price to be paid in terms of performance is negligible. In laser operation, the device has the same or higher efficiency compared to the best lattice-matched QCLs without same wavelength detection capability, which is only 30% below the record achieved with strained material at this wavelength.
Active, widely tunable optical materials have enabled rapid advances in photonics and optoelectronics, especially in the emerging field of meta-devices. Here, we demonstrate that spatially selective defect engineering on the nanometer scale can transform phase transition materials into optical metasurfaces. Using ion irradiation through nanometer-scale masks, we selectively defect-engineered the insulator-metal transition of vanadium dioxide, a prototypical correlated phase-transition material whose optical properties change dramatically depending on its state. Using this robust technique, we demonstrated several optical metasurfaces, including tunable absorbers with artificially induced phase coexistence and tunable polarizers based on thermally triggered dichroism. Spatially selective nanoscale defect engineering represents a new paradigm for active photonic structures and devices.
Subwavelength structured surfaces, known as meta-surfaces, hold promise for future compact and optically thin devices with versatile functionalities. By revisiting the concept of detour phase, we demonstrate high-efficiency holograms with broadband and chiral imaging functionalities. In our devices, the apertures of binary holograms are replaced by subwavelength structured microgratings. We achieve broadband operation from the visible to the near infrared and efficiency as high as 75% in the 1.0 to 1.4 mm range by compensating for the inherent dispersion of the detour phase with that of the subwavelength structure. In addition, we demonstrate chiral holograms that project different images depending on the handedness of the reference beam by incorporating a geometric phase. Our devices' compactness, lightness, and ability to produce images even at large angles have significant potential for important emerging applications such as wearable optics.
Metasurfaces are planar optical elements that hold promise for overcoming the limitations of refractive and conventional diffractive optics. Original dielectric metasurfaces are limited to transparency windows at infrared wavelengths because of significant optical absorption and loss at visible wavelengths. Thus, it is critical that new materials and nanofabrication techniques be developed to extend dielectric metasurfaces across the visible spectrum and to enable applications such as high numerical aperture lenses, color holograms, and wearable optics. Here, we demonstrate high performance dielectric metasurfaces in the form of holograms for red, green, and blue wavelengths with record absolute efficiency (> 78%). We use atomic layer deposition of amorphous titanium dioxide with surface roughness less than 1 nm and negligible optical loss. We use a process for fabricating dielectric metasurfaces that allows us to produce anisotropic, subwavelength-spaced dielectric nanostructures with shape birefringence. This process is capable of realizing any high-efficiency metasurface optical element, e.g., metalenses and axicons.
III-V semiconductor heterostructures are important components of many solid-state optoelectronic devices, but the ability to control and tune the electrical and optical properties of these structures in conventional device geometries is fundamentally limited by the bulk dimensionality and the inability to accommodate lattice-mismatched material combinations. Here we demonstrate how semiconductor nanowires may enable the creation of arbitrarily shaped one-dimensional potential structures for new types of designed device functionality. We describe the controlled growth of stepwise compositionally graded InAs1-xPx heterostmctures defined along the axes of InAs nanowires, and we show that nanowires with sawtooth-shaped composition profiles behave as near-ideal unipolar diodes with ratchet-like rectification of the electron transport through the nanowires, in excellent agreement with simulations. This new type of designed quasi-1D potential structure represents a significant advance in band gap engineering and may enable fundamental studies of low-dimensional hot-carrier dynamics, in addition to constituting a platform for implementing novel electronic and optoelectronic device concepts.
A metasurface lens (meta-lens) bends light using nanostructures on a flat surface. Macroscopic meta-lenses (mm- to cm-scale diameter) have been quite difficult to simulate and optimize, due to the large area, the lack of periodicity, and the billions of adjustable parameters. We describe a method for designing a large-area meta-lens that allows not only prediction of the efficiency and far-field, but also optimization of the shape and position of each individual nanostructure, with a computational cost that is almost independent of the lens size. As examples, we design three large NA = 0.94 meta-lenses: One with 79% predicted efficiency for yellow light, one with dichroic properties, and one broadband lens. All have a minimum feature size of 100nm. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America
We report the first demonstration of a mid-IR reflection-based flat lens with high efficiency and near diffraction-limited focusing. Focusing efficiency as high as 80%, in good agreement with simulations (83%), has been achieved at 45 degrees incidence angle at lambda = 4.6 mu m. The off-axis geometry considerably simplifies the optical arrangement compared to the common geometry of normal incidence in reflection mode which requires beam splitters. Simulations show that the effects of incidence angle are small compared to parabolic mirrors with the same NA. The use of single-step photolithography allows large scale fabrication. Such a device is important in the development of compact telescopes, microscopes, and spectroscopic designs. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America