Markus C. Amann, Federico Capasso, Anders Larsson, and Markus Pessa. 2009. “Focus on advanced semiconductor heterostructures for optoelectronics.” NEW JOURNAL OF PHYSICS, 11.Abstract
Semiconductor heterostructures are the basic materials underlying optoelectronic devices, particularly lasers and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Made from various III-V-, II-VI-, SiGe- and other compound semiconductors, modern semiconductor devices are available for the generation, detection and modulation of light covering the entire ultra-violet to far-infrared spectral region. Recent approaches that introduced multilayer heterostructures tailored on the lower nanometre scale made possible artificial semiconductors with new properties, such as extended wavelength coverage, that enabled new applications. Together with ongoing progress on wide-gap semiconductors, the optical wavelengths accessible by semiconductor devices are steadily expanding towards the short-wavelength ultra-violet regime, as well as further into the far-infrared and terahertz spectral regions. It is the aim of this focus issue to present cutting-edge research topics on the most recent optoelectronic material and device developments in this field using advanced semiconductor heterostructures.
David Woolf, Marko Loncar, and Federico Capasso. 2009. “The forces from coupled surface plasmon polaritons in planar waveguides.” OPTICS EXPRESS, 17, 22, Pp. 19996-20011.Abstract
We analytically investigate the forces due to Surface Plasmon Polariton (SPP) modes between finite and infinitely thick metal slabs separated by an air gap. Using the Drude model and experimentally determined values of the dielectric functions of gold and silver, we study how frequency dispersion and loss in the metals affects the behavior of the SPP modes and the forces generated by them. We calculate the force using the Maxwell Stress Tensor for both the attractive and repulsive modes. (C) 2009 Optical Society of America
Qijie Wang, Christian Pflugl, Laurent Diehl, Federico Capasso, Tadataka Edamura, Shinichi Furuta, Masamichi Yamanishi, and Hirofumi Kan. 2009. “High performance quantum cascade lasers based on three-phonon-resonance design.” APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 94, 1.Abstract
A quantum cascade laser structure based on three-phonon-resonance design is proposed and demonstrated. Devices, emitting at a wavelength of 9 mu m, processed into buried ridge waveguide structures with a 3 mm long, 16 mu m wide cavity and a high-reflection (HR) coating have shown peak output powers of 1.2 W, slope efficiencies of 1 W/A, threshold current densities of 1.1 kA/cm(2), and high wall-plug efficiency of 6% at 300 K. A 3 mm long, 12 mu m wide buried-heterostructure device without a HR coating exhibited continuous wave output power of as high as 65 mW from a single facet at 300 K.
Richard Maulini, Arkadiy Lyakh, Alexei Tsekoun, Rowel Go, Christian Pfluegl, Laurent Diehl, Federico Capasso, and C. Kumar N. Patel. 2009. “High power thermoelectrically cooled and uncooled quantum cascade lasers with optimized reflectivity facet coatings.” APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 95, 15.Abstract
We present a method of preserving the device wall-plug efficiency by adjusting mirror losses with facet coatings for longer cavity quantum cascade lasers. An experimental study of output power and wall-plug efficiency as functions of mirror losses was performed by varying the front facet coating reflectivity with a high-reflectivity-coated rear facet. The use of optimized reflectivity coatings on 7-mm-long chips resulted in continuous-wave output power of 2.9 W at 293 K for thermoelectrically cooled devices mounted on AlN submounts and average and continuous-wave output power in excess of 1 W for uncooled devices emitting at 4.6 mu m. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3246799]
Mikhail A. Belkin, Qijie Wang, Christian Pfluegl, Alexey Belyanin, Suraj P. Khanna, Alexander Giles Davies, Edmund Harold Linfield, and Federico Capasso. 2009. “High-Temperature Operation of Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser Sources.” IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, 15, 3, Pp. 952-967.Abstract
Terahertz (THz) quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are currently the most advanced electrically pumped semiconductor lasers in the spectral range 1-5 THz. However, their operation at room temperature is still an unresolved challenge. In this paper, we discuss our efforts to improve the temperature performance of these devices. In particular, we present THz QCLs that approach thermoelectric cooled operation and discuss factors that limit their high-temperature performance. We also discuss a different type of THz QCL source that produces coherent THz radiation without population inversion across the THz transition. These devices are based on intracavity difference-frequency generation in dual-wavelength mid-IR QCLs, and can now provide microwatt levels of coherent THz radiation up to room temperature. We discuss how the output power of these devices can be further improved to produce milliwatts of THz radiation at room temperature.
J. N. Munday, Federico Capasso, and V. Adrian Parsegian. 2009. “Measured long-range repulsive Casimir-Lifshitz forces.” NATURE, 457, 7226, Pp. 170-173.Abstract
Quantum fluctuations create intermolecular forces that pervade macroscopic bodies(1-3). At molecular separations of a few nanometres or less, these interactions are the familiar van der Waals forces(4). However, as recognized in the theories of Casimir, Polder and Lifshitz(5-7), at larger distances and between macroscopic condensed media they reveal retardation effects associated with the finite speed of light. Although these long- range forces exist within all matter, only attractive interactions have so far been measured between material bodies(8-11). Here we show experimentally that, in accord with theoretical prediction(12), the sign of the force can be changed from attractive to repulsive by suitable choice of interacting materials immersed in a fluid. The measured repulsive interaction is found to be weaker than the attractive. However, in both cases the magnitude of the force increases with decreasing surface separation. Repulsive Casimir - Lifshitz forces could allow quantum levitation of objects in a fluid and lead to a new class of switchable nanoscale devices with ultra-low static friction(13-15).
Christine Y. Wang, Lyuba Kuznetsova, V. M. Gkortsas, L. Diehl, F. X. Kaertner, M. A. Belkin, A. Belyanin, X. Li, D. Ham, H. Schneider, P. Grant, C. Y. Song, S. Haffouz, Z. R. Wasilewski, H. C. Liu, and Federico Capasso. 2009. “Mode-locked pulses from mid-infrared Quantum Cascade Lasers.” OPTICS EXPRESS, 17, 15, Pp. 12929-12943.Abstract
In this study, we report the unequivocal demonstration of mid-infrared mode-locked pulses from quantum cascade lasers. The train of short pulses was generated by actively modulating the current and hence the gain of an edge-emitting quantum cascade laser (QCL). Pulses with duration of about 3 ps at full-width-at-half-maxima and energy of 0.5 pJ were characterized using a second-order interferometric autocorrelation technique based on a nonlinear quantum well infrared photodetector. The mode-locking dynamics in the QCLs was modeled based on the Maxwell-Bloch equations in an open two-level system. Our model reproduces the overall shape of the measured autocorrelation traces and predicts that the short pulses are accompanied by substantial wings as a result of strong spatial hole burning. The range of parameters where short mode-locked pulses can be formed is found. (C) 2009 Optical Society of America
Nanfang Yu, Mikhail A. Kats, Christian Pfluegl, Markus Geiser, Qijie Wang, Mikhail A. Belkin, Federico Capasso, Milan Fischer, Andreas Wittmann, Jerome Faist, Tadataka Edamura, Shinichi Furuta, Masamichi Yamanishi, and Hirofumi Kan. 2009. “Multi-beam multi-wavelength semiconductor lasers (vol 95, 161108, 2009).” APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 95, 23. 2009_yu_et_al_apl.pdf
Jiming Bao, David C. Bell, Federico Capasso, Natasha Erdman, Dongguang Wei, Linus Froberg, Thomas Martensson, and Lars Samuelson. 2009. “Nanowire-induced Wurtzite InAs Thin Film on Zinc-Blende InAs Substrate.” ADVANCED MATERIALS, 21, 36, Pp. 3654+.Abstract
InAs pyramids and platelets on a zinc-blende InAs substrate are found to exhibit a wurtzite crystal structure. induced by wurtzite InAs nanowires, wurtzite InAs thin film and its associated zinc-blende/wurtzite heterocrystalline heterostructures may open up new opportunities in band-gap engineering and related device applications.
Elizabeth J. Smythe, Michael D. Dickey, Jiming Bao, George M. Whitesides, and Federico Capasso. 2009. “Optical Antenna Arrays on a Fiber Facet for in Situ Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Detection.” NANO LETTERS, 9, 3, Pp. 1132-1138.Abstract
This paper reports a bidirectional fiber optic probe for the detection of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). One facet of the probe features an array of gold optical antennas designed to enhance Raman signals, while the other facet of the fiber is used for the input and collection of light. Simultaneous detection of benzenethiol and 2-[(E)-2-pyridin-4-ylethenyl]pyridine is demonstrated through a 35 cm long fiber. The array of nanoscale optical antennas was first defined by electron-beam lithography on a silicon wafer. The array was subsequently stripped from the wafer and then transferred to the facet of a fiber. Lithographic definition of the antennas provides a method for producing two-dimensional arrays with well-defined geometry, which allows (i) the optical response of the probe to be tuned and (I!) the density of ``hot spots'' generating the enhanced Raman signal to be controlled. It is difficult to determine the Raman signal enhancement factor (EF) of most fiber optic Raman sensors featuring hot spots because the geometry of the Raman enhancing nanostructures is poorly defined. The ability to control the size and spacing of the antennas enables the EF of the transferred array to be estimated. EF values estimated after focusing a laser directly onto the transferred array ranged from 2.6 x 10(5) to 5.1 x 10(5).
Ertugrul Cubukcu and Federico Capasso. 2009. “Optical nanorod antennas as dispersive one-dimensional Fabry-Peacuterot resonators for surface plasmons.” APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 95, 20.Abstract
Resonant optical nanoantennas exhibit a different length scaling due to the surface plasmons compared to their radio frequency counterparts. In this letter, we address this difference by calculating the wavelength-dependent effective mode index n(eff) for a cylindrical one-dimensional gold nanowire waveguide. Our results show that nanorod optical antennas act as dispersive and lossy Fabry-Peacuterot resonators for surface plasmons.
Nanfang Yu, Qijie Wang, Christian Pflugl, Laurent Diehl, Federico Capasso, Tadataka Edamura, Shinichi Furuta, Masamichi Yamanishi, and Hirofumi Kan. 2009. “Semiconductor lasers with integrated plasmonic polarizers.” APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 94, 15.Abstract
The authors reported the plasmonic control of semiconductor laser polarization by means of metallic gratings and subwavelength apertures patterned on the laser emission facet. An integrated plasmonic polarizer can project the polarization of a semiconductor laser onto other directions. By designing a facet with two orthogonal grating-aperture structures, a polarization state consisting of a superposition of a linearly and right-circularly polarized light was demonstrated in a quantum cascade laser; a first step toward a circularly polarized laser.
Elizabeth J. Smythe, Michael D. Dickey, George M. Whitesides, and Federico Capasso. 2009. “A Technique to Transfer Metallic Nanoscale Patterns to Small and Non-Planar Surfaces.” ACS NANO, 3, 1, Pp. 59-65.Abstract
Conventional lithographic methods (e.g., electron-beam lithography, photolithography) are capable of producing high-resolution structures over large areas but are generally limited to large (> 1 cm(2)) planar substrates. Incorporation of these features on unconventional substrates (i.e., small (< 1 mm(2)) and/or non-planar substrates) would open possibilities for many applications, including remote fiber-based sensing, nanoscale optical lithography, three-dimensional fabrication, and integration of compact optical elements on fiber and semiconductor lasers. Here we introduce a simple method in which a thin thiol-ene film strips arbitrary nanoscale metallic features from one substrate and is then transferred, along with the attached features, to a substrate that would be difficult or impossible to pattern with conventional lithographic techniques. An oxygen plasma removes the sacrificial film, leaving behind the metallic features. The transfer of dense and sparse patterns of isolated and connected gold features ranging from 30 nm to 1 mu m, to both an optical fiber facet and a silica microsphere, demonstrates the versatility of the method. A distinguishing feature of this technique is the us? of a thin, sacrificial film to strip and transfer metallic nanopatterns and its ability to directly transfer metallic structures produced by conventional lithography.
Daniel Recht, Federico Capasso, and Michael J. Aziz. 2009. “On the temperature dependence of point-defect-mediated luminescence in silicon.” APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 94, 25.Abstract
We present a model of the temperature dependence of point-defect-mediated luminescence in silicon derived from basic kinetics and semiconductor physics and based on the kinetics of bound exciton formation. The model provides a good fit to data for W line electroluminescence and G line photoluminescence in silicon. Strategies are discussed for extending luminescence to room temperature.
Hyunyong Choi, Laurent Diehl, Zong-Kwei Wu, Marcella Giovannini, Jerome Faist, Federico Capasso, and Theodore B. Norris. 2009. “Time-Resolved Investigations of Electronic Transport Dynamics in Quantum Cascade Lasers Based on Diagonal Lasing Transition.” IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, 45, 4, Pp. 307-321.Abstract
In this study, the nature of electronic transport in quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) has been extensively investigated using an ultrafast time-resolved, degenerate, pump-probe optical technique. Our investigations enable a comprehensive understanding of the gain recovery dynamics in terms of a coupling of the electronic transport to the oscillating intracavity laser intensity. In QCLs that have a lasing transition diagonal in real space, studies of the near-threshold reveal that the transport of electrons changes bias region from phonon-limited relaxation (tens of picoseconds) below threshold to photon-driven transport via stimulated emission (a few picoseconds) above threshold. The gain recovery dynamics in the photon-driven regime is compared with conventional four-level lasers such as atomic, molecular, and semiconductor interband lasers. The depopulation dynamics out of the lower lasing state is explained using a tight-binding tunneling model and phonon-limited relaxation. For the superlattice relaxation, it is possible to explain the characteristic picosecond transport via dielectric relaxation; Monte Carlo simulations with a simple resistor model are developed, and the Esaki-Tsu model is applied. Subpicosecond dynamics due to carrier heating in the upper subband are isolated and appear to be at most about 10% of the gain compression compared with the contribution of stimulated emission. Finally, the polarization anisotropy in the active waveguide is experimentally shown to be negligible on our pump-probe data, supporting our interpretation of data in terms of gain recovery and transport.
R. Maulini, I. Dunayevskiy, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, C. K. N. Patel, L. Diehl, C. Pfluegl, and F. Capasso. 2009. “Widely tunable high-power external cavity quantum cascade laser operating in continuous-wave at room temperature.” ELECTRONICS LETTERS, 45, 2, Pp. 107-U30.Abstract
A grating-coupled external cavity quantum cascade laser operating in continuous-wave at room temperature is reported. Single-frequency operation tunable over more than 160 cm(-1) around the centre wave-length of 4.6 mu m has been observed at a chip temperature of 300 K. The maximum optical power at the gain peak was 300 mW, corresponding to a wall-plug efficiency of 6%. Observed power output at the gain bandwidth edges was in excess of 125 mW.
Benjamin G. Lee, Mikhail A. Belkin, and Federico Capasso. 2008. “Array of tiny quantum cascade lasers provides tunable mid-IR output.” PHOTONICS SPECTRA, 42, 5, Pp. 70+.
Qijie Wang, Christian Pfluegl, William F. Andress, Donhee Ham, Federico Capasso, and Masamichi Yamanishi. 2008. “Gigahertz surface acoustic wave generation on ZnO thin films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on III-V semiconductor substrates.” JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B, 26, 6, Pp. 1848-1851.Abstract
The authors demonstrate 1.6 GHz surface acoustic wave (SAW) generation using interdigital transducers patterned by e-beam lithography on a thin ZnO piezoelectric film deposited on an InP substrate. The highly oriented, dense, and fine-grain ZnO film with high resistivity was deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering and was characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and a four-point probe station. The acoustic wavelength of the 1.6 GHz SAW generated by exciting the interdigital transducer on ZnO/InP with a microwave signal is 1.6 mu m. This SAW filter device could be monolithically integrated with optoelectronic devices, opening new opportunities to use SAWs for applications such as gigahertz-frequency filters on optoelectronic devices and novel widely tunable quantum cascade lasers.
Mariano Troccoli, Laurent Diehl, David P. Bour, Scott W. Corzine, Nanfang Yu, Christine Y. Wang, Mikhail A. Belkin, Gloria Hoefler, Rafal Lewicki, Gerard Wysocki, Frank K. Tittel, and Federico Capasso. 2008. “High-Performance Quantum Cascade Lasers Grown by Metal-Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy and Their Applications to Trace Gas Sensing.” JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY, 26, 21-24, Pp. 3534-3555.Abstract
We present an overview of our results on the design, material growth, device characterization, and spectroscopic applications of MOVPE-grown quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). These devices are capable of room-temperature (RT) continuous-wave operation and high power emission. The first section focuses on growth of laser material, device fabrication, and quantum design The second section discusses RT pulsed operation, in particular the doping dependence of laser performance and broadband emission. Near-field measurements performed on the devices' facets correlating lateral modes to device size are also discussed. Section III deals with continuous-wave high-temperature operation from lasers with different active region designs, including their spectral characteristics and in the emergence of coherent phenomena at high power levels. Section IV analyses the devices thermal dissipation capabilities, while in Section V we report reliability data. The final section focuses on spectroscopic applications and tunability. Optofluidic narrow ridge lasers and their application to chemical sensing are reported along with recent data on a broadband on chip spectrometer consisting of individually addressable distributed feedback QCLs. Various spectroscopic techniques and in particular quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy and its use in gas sensing systems are discussed. Finally, optofluidic narrow ridge lasers and their applications to fluid sensing are presented.
Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, S. Furuta, and H. Kan. 2008. “High-power long-wavelength room-temperature MOVPE-grown quantum cascade lasers with air-semiconductor waveguide.” ELECTRONICS LETTERS, 44, 8, Pp. 525-527.Abstract
Quantum cascade lasers grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) with high peak output power of 1.3 W at 300 K emitting a wavelength of 9.8 mu m are reported. The devices are processed in wide ridge waveguide structures with an air-semiconductor interface to confine the laser optical mode. This design increases the optical overlap factor and reduces waveguide losses.