Publications by Year: 2004

A Soibel, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, ML Peabody, AM Sergent, R Paiella, HY Hwang, DL Sivco, AY Cho, HC Liu, C Jirauschek, and FX Kartner. 2004. “Active mode locking of broadband quantum cascade lasers.” IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, 40, 7, Pp. 844-851. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Active mode locking in broadband quantum cascade (QC) lasers with a repetition rate of about 14.3 GHz has been achieved through the modulation of the laser bias current. At low driving currents, the active mode locking in broadband QC lasers resembles the active mode locking in single-wavelength QC lasers, while at high driving currents, the mode locking properties are governed by the broad spectral gain of these lasers. At high bias currents, the active modulation excites Fabry-Perot modes across the entire gain spectrum from 6.7 to 7.4 mum, with clear evidence of mode locking. The spectral width of the optical gain in the broadband QC lasers exceeds 2 THz and indicates the potential for generating subpicosecond pulses.
KJ Russell, I Appelbaum, W. Yi, DJ Monsma, F. Capasso, CM Marcus, V. Narayanamurti, MP Hanson, and A. C. Gossard. 2004. “Avalanche spin-valve transistor.” APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 85, 19, Pp. 4502-4504.Abstract
A spin-valve transistor with a GaAs/AlGaAs avalanche-multiplying collector is demonstrated with >1000% magnetocurrent variation and approximate to35x amplification of the collector current. The intrinsic amplification of the magnetic-field sensitive collector current should allow fabrication of spin-valve transistors with high gain in a variety of materials. (C) 2004 American Institute of Physics.
D Iannuzzi, M Lisanti, and F. Capasso. 2004. “Effect of hydrogen-switchable mirrors on the Casimir force.” PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 101, 12, Pp. 4019-4023.Abstract
We present systematic measurements of the Casimir force between a gold-coated plate and a sphere coated with a hydrogen-switchable mirror. Hydrogen-switchable mirrors are shiny metals that can become transparent upon hydrogenation. Despite such a dramatic change of the optical properties of the sphere, we did not observe any significant decrease of the Casimir force after filling the experimental apparatus with hydrogen. This counterintuitive result can be explained by the Lifshitz theory that describes the Casimir attraction between metallic and dielectric materials.
R Colombelli, K Srinivasan, M Troccoli, O Painter, C. Gmachl, DM Tennant, AM Sergent, DL Sivco, AY Cho, and F. Capasso. 2004. “Fabrication technologies for quantum cascade photonic-crystal microlasers.” NANOTECHNOLOGY, 15, 5, Pp. 675-681.Abstract
In this paper we describe the technological and fabrication methods necessary to incorporate both photonic and electronic-band engineering in order to create novel surface-emitting quantum cascade microcavity laser sources. This technology offers the promise of several innovative applications such as the miniaturization of QC lasers, and multi-wavelength two-dimensional laser arrays for spectroscopy, gas-sensing and imaging. This approach is not limited to light-emitting devices, and may be efficiently applied to the development of mid- and far-infrared normal-incidence detectors.
K Srinivasan, O Painter, R Colombelli, C. Gmachl, DM Tennant, AM Sergent, DL Sivco, AY Cho, M Troccoli, and F. Capasso. 2004. “Lasing mode pattern of a quantum cascade photonic crystal surface-emitting microcavity laser.” APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 84, 21, Pp. 4164-4166.Abstract
The identification of the lasing mode within a quantum cascade photonic crystal microcavity laser emitting at lambdasimilar to8 mum is presented. The symmetry of the lasing mode is determined by the position of nodal lines within micro-bolometer camera measurements of its polarized spatial distribution. Full three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations are also performed, and the resulting vertically emitted radiation field pattern is seen to follow the experimental results closely. (C) 2004 American Institute of Physics.
M Troccoli, D Bour, S Corzine, G Hofler, A Tandon, D Mars, DJ Smith, L Diehl, and F. Capasso. 2004. “Low-threshold continuous-wave operation of quantum-cascade lasers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy.” APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 85, 24, Pp. 5842-5844.Abstract
We report on the realization of InGaAs/InAlAs quantum-cascade lasers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy operating in continuous wave with low-threshold current densities at temperatures as high as 188 K. Threshold current densities of 950 A/cm(2) and output powers of 125 mW are measured at 80 K, while 3 mW of continuous output power are measured at 180 K, with a threshold of 2.5 kA/cm(2). In pulsed mode, peak output powers of more than 0.4 W were obtained at 80 K and of 160 mW at 300 K with thresholds of 700 A/cm(2) and 2.75 kA/cm(2), respectively. (C) 2004 American Institute of Physics.
V Tamosiunas, R Zobl, G Fasching, J Ulrich, G Strasser, K Unterrainer, R Colombelli, C. Gmachl, K West, L Pfeiffer, and F. Capasso. 2004. “Magnetic field effects in terahertz quantum-cascade lasers.” SEMICONDUCTOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 19, 4, SI, Pp. S348-S350.Abstract
We have measured the emission intensity and spectra of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers in an external magnetic field applied normal to the epilayers. We have observed a reduction of the threshold current, an enhancement of laser emission intensity and shifts of the emission line. A wider operating range was predicted for the selected waveguide design according to our finite-difference time-domain simulation results. The intensity enhancement and the threshold current reduction are attributed to the suppression of nonradiative Auger-intersubband transitions by Landau quantization of the in-plane electron motion, to the modulation of the injection rate via resonant inter-Landau-level transfer, and to the modulation of waveguide properties.
D Bour, M Troccoli, F. Capasso, S Corzine, A Tandon, D Mars, and G Hofler. 2004. “Metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy of room-temperature, low-threshold InGaAs/AlInAs quantum cascade lasers.” JOURNAL OF CRYSTAL GROWTH, 272, 1-4, Pp. 526-530.Abstract
We have grown 30-stage AtInAs-GaInAs quantum cascade laser structures by low-pressure metalorganic vaporphase epitaxy (MOVPE). The growth rate for the active region was set very low (0.1 nm/s), and growth stops were employed at all interfaces. The devices were operated pulsed at room temperature, with a threshold current density of 2.8 kA/cm(2), a lasing wavelength of 7.6mum, and a peak power of 150mW. CW operation was achieved up to a temperature of 180 K. These characteristics compare favorably with MBE-grown QC lasers of similar structure. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A Soibel, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, ML Peabody, AM Sergent, R Paiella, DL Sivco, AY Cho, and HC Liu. 2004. “Stability of pulse emission and enhancement of intracavity second-harmonic generation in self-mode-locked quantum cascade lasers.” IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, 40, 3, Pp. 197-204.Abstract
We report the observation of stable pulse emission and enhancement of intracavity second-harmonic generation (SHG) in self-mode-locked quantum cascade (QC) lasers. Down-conversion of the detector signal by heterodyning with an RF signal allows the direct observation of the pulsed laser emission in the time domain and reveals a stable train of pulses characteristic of mode-locked lasers. The onset of self-mode locking in QC lasers with built-in optical nonlinearity results in a significant increase of the SHG signal. A pulse duration of similar to12 ps is estimated from the measured increase of the SHG signal in pulsed emission compared to the power expected for the SHG signal in CW emission. This value is in good agreement with the pulse duration deduced from the optical spectral width.
C. Gmachl, N Owschimikow, A Belyanin, AM Sergent, DL Sivco, ML Peabody, AY Cho, and F. Capasso. 2004. “Temperature dependence and single-mode tuning behavior of second-harmonic generation in quantum cascade lasers.” APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 84, 15, Pp. 2751-2753.Abstract
Second-harmonic generation (SHG) is reported in quantum cascade (QC) lasers with active regions that also support nonlinear cascades with large second order nonlinear susceptibility. SHG has been measured from 10 up to 250 K heat sink temperature, with about 1 muW of nonlinear power at 10 K and about 50 nW at 250 K. Single-mode and tunable SHG at 3.5 mum wavelength has been measured from single-mode QC distributed feedback lasers operating at the fundamental pump wavelength of 7.0 mum. Thermal tuning results in a tuning rate for the SHG emission of similar to0.2 nm/K for temperatures above similar to100 K. (C) 2004 American Institute of Physics.
J. Kim, M Lerttamrab, SL Chuang, C. Gmachl, DL Sivco, F. Capasso, and AY Cho. 2004. “Theoretical and experimental study of optical gain and linewidth enhancement factor of type-I quantum-cascade lasers.” IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, 40, 12, Pp. 1663-1674.Abstract
A theoretical and experimental study of the optical gain and the linewidth enhancement factor (LEF) of a type-I quantum-cascade (QQ laser is reported. QC lasers have a symmetrical gain spectrum because the optical transition occurs between conduction subbands. According to the Kramers-Kronig relation, a zero LEF is predicted at the gain peak, but there has been no experimental observation of a zero LEF. There are other mechanisms that affect the LEF such as device self-heating, and the refractive index change due to other transition states not involved in lasing action. In this paper, the effects of these mechanisms on the LEF of a type-I QC laser are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The optical gain spectrum and the LEF are measured using the Hakki-Paoli method. Device self-heating on the wavelength shift in the Fabry-Perot modes is isolated by measuring the shift of the lasing wavelength above the threshold current. The band structure of a QC laser is calculated by solving the Schrodinger-Poisson equation self-consistently. We use the Gaussian lineshape function for gain change and the confluent hypergeometric function of the first kind for refractive index change, which satisfies the Kramers-Kronig relation. The refractive index change caused by various transition states is calculated by the theoretical model of a type-I QC laser. The calculated LEF shows good agreement with the experimental measurement.